Analysis of the Historical Development of Automobile Radiator
Ⅰ. The invention of the automobile radiator
1. Why do cars need radiators?
Only 30-40% of the heat released by combustion in the car engine cylinder becomes practical work, and the others are dissipated in various forms. 20-30% of the heat is released into the atmosphere through the cooling system. There are two cooling methods for car engines: air cooling and water cooling. The car radiator is the main component in the cooling water system, responsible for dissipating the heat in the coolant to the atmosphere. The radiator is usually composed of a water chamber, a core, and a radiator cover.
2. How to dissipate heat for the new car
Car radiators grew with the invention of cars. In the history of the world's automobile development, the German engineer Karl Benz generally made the first gasoline-powered tricycle in 1886 as the beginning of modern human automobiles. The car uses a two-stroke gasoline engine and has some basic features of modern vehicles, including a water cooling system.
3. Maybach invents car radiators
The first real car radiator in the world was the honeycomb radiator invented by Wilhelm Maybach in 1901. Wilhelm Mayba is a German engine designer and industrialist. In 1900, Maybach designed a brand new racing car, Mercedes. The prototype will be completed at the end of the year. It has 35 horsepower and a top speed of 75 kilometers per hour. The car was exhibited at the second auto show in the United States the following year and caused quite a stir. Throughout 1901, Jelinek drove it to win many championships in the world.
Ⅱ. The evolution layout of the car radiator
Early car engines had different radiators, which fully reflected the designer's mind. It is a water-cooled radiator of an early car. It consists of a set of light pipes. Because it is located at the rear of the vehicle, it is almost entirely dependent on the natural convection on the airside. After entering the 20th century, classic radiator arrangements appeared. The car radiator is arranged at the front of the car, fully using oncoming air for cooling.
Ⅲ. Car radiators are becoming mature
1. Tube-fin radiator structure
The core of the tube-fin radiator is composed of many cooling tubes and fins. The cooling pipe is welded between the upper and lower water chambers as a channel for cooling water. The heat sink is sleeved outside the cooling pipe to increase the heat exchange area. When air blows through the core, the water flowing in the tube is cooled.
2. The emergence of tube-fin radiators
In 1904, Royce, an engineer in Manchester, England, built his first cars. This is a small two-seater car with only ten horsepower. The first tube-fin all-aluminum radiator is installed on the front of the car. The radiators of this period were all exposed. As part of the car's front, the water chamber and the water tank cover were also made of brass. They were bright and shiny, which was a good decoration. The "R" trademarks stacked together are pasted on the water chamber.
Ⅳ. The evolutionary history of automotive all-aluminum radiator covers
1. Open loop
The early automobile cooling system did not have a water pump and used an open-cycle working mode. The coolant is connected to the outside atmosphere and uses heat radiation and evaporation of the coolant to help dissipate heat. The water temperature is generally 75~90°C. The coolant in the water tank often boils, so the coolant is consumed quickly. In order to compensate for the cooling liquid and ensure the cooling effect, a huge water tank is needed, and the water tank must be regularly replenished with cooling liquid.
In a closed-loop cooling system, the coolant is sealed and not communicated with the outside atmosphere. The coolant loss is minimal. The huge water storage tank can be eliminated. The siphon cooling system in 1937 adopted a closed cycle, but without a circulating water pump, it was a natural cycle. The working pressure of the coolant in the closed-cycle cooling system is controlled by the car radiator cover, which is generally higher than the ambient air pressure, which increases the boiling point of the coolant.